Vinnitsa as a small settlement was founded on the picturesque banks of the Southern Bug River in 1363 by Lithuanian Prince Olgert.
But numerous archaeological excavations have proved that Slavic tribes lived in this area as far back as deep antiquity. The history of this land is closely connected with the names of Bohdan Khmelnitsky, Ivan Bogun, Maxim Krivonos, Yustim Karmalyuk and many other heroes of Ukrainian people. Since the Middle Ages and XVII-XLX centuries, pieces of a tall brick town wall, several churches and cathedrals, as well as many private residences have remained, which are used for different purposes.
Many of travelers enjoy visiting the museum of the classic of Ukrainian literature Michailo Kotsubinskiy (1864-1913). The small white washed house where he lived with his family is in the center of Vinnitsa.
There is one more place in our town which is known all over the world - Hitler's Headquarters. It is situated between Vinnitsa and the village of Strizhavka.
During the Great Patriotic War, many soldiers and officers were captured and imprisoned in special camps. There were engineers, builders and good workers among them. They were picked out and taken to Vinnitsa to build a huge underground structure for Hitler and his staff. Many thousands of people were shot after the headquarters was built. Al the entrances were concreted, mined and hidden. At the end of World War 2 this place was heavily bombarded, and still nobody really knows what is inside.
Now Vinnitsa is one of the 25 regions of Ukraine. It is situated in the central part of Ukraine. The total area of Vinnitsa region is about 16 thousand sq. miles, the population of city is about half a million people.
The main rivers are the Southern Bug and the Dniester. We also have nearly 50 small rivers and 2300 lakes. The natural resources are the following: deposits of granite, lime stone, clay, sand and mineral spring water in several places. Our rivers and lakes are full of fish: carps, pikes, perches, catfishes.
The climate of Vinnitsa region is moderately humid. The usual temperature in summer is +22°C, in winter - 6°C. The bathing season lasts from June to August and many citizens go picnicking in open air on weekends. Sometimes, you can come across a wolf or an elk.
It is quite obvious that Vinnitsa is the main industrial, transport, agricultural, cultural, and educational center of the region. The enterprises of Vinnitsa and industrial centers such as Kalynivka, Zhmerinka, Gaisin, Bershad etc can produce chemicals, motors and instruments, radio and TV lamps, building details, furniture, and food products.
Vinnitsa is known as agricultural center because the fertile soil of the region is favorable for vegetables in and fruit trees. The main crop is sugar beet. Sugar beets raising and sugar industry are widely spread.
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